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Kenichi Ohmae

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HUITZILAC MUNICIPALITY
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PROJECT UBICATION

Tres Marías Morelos, Huitzilac Municipality

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This project involves the sustainable and resilient development of a mixed community where people from urban and rural environments interact, in the municipality of Huitzilac Morelos (Tres Marías) and the surroundings.
The municipality of Huitzilac, founded on August 29, 1921, has an area of ​​190 km 2 and represents 3.84 percent of the state’s total.
The word Huitzilac means “In hummingbird water”. These small birds called locally “huichichiquis” inhabit its ravines (this place name comes from uitzitzillin, “bird fly or hummingbird”; a-tl, “water” and k contraction of ko adverb of “place”).
The Municipality is divided into five communities: Huitzilac, Tres Marías, Fierro del Toro, Coajomulco and, Fraccionamientos y Parajes. Huitzilac, is considered the second most important in the State of Morelos because it communicates with Mexico City; and it is located in the north-western angle of the State of Morelos, graphically between the parallel 19 00’00 ”and 19 07’20” of north latitude and between 99 10’20 ”and 99 20’00” of west longitude of the meridian from Greenwich.

Weather

It is located 2,500 meters above sea level and its type of climate is humid subtropical with a well-defined winter, it registers an average annual temperature of 12 o C, with an average annual rainfall of 1,358 cubic millimeters.

Orography

The municipality is located within a great mountainous concentration and its heights fluctuate between 3,250 and 2,250 meters, the Cerro de la Manteca of 3,200 meters; that of the Tezoyo on 3,150 meters; that of Tepeyahualco, that of Tuxtepec, both at an elevation of 3,250 meters; that of Zacolocohaya, that of Mirador, that of Piedra Quila, that of Zempoala, the Ojo de Arezacapa, all at an elevation of 3,000 meters. In the central part of the municipality is the Tres Marías hill, which reaches 3,250 meters in height. The rugged areas are located to the southwest of the municipality and some patches on the rest of the surface. The semi-flat areas are to the north and center, the flat areas are found on small plateaus at the top of the mountain range. It is physically located on the southern slope of the neovolcanic axis, the lakes and volcanoes of Anahuac physiographic subprovince.

Hydrography

In the municipality are the Zempoala lagoons, intermittent streams and wells. It is located in the river basin of the Balsas River, Río Grande Amacuzac sub-basin, specifically, forming part of the head of the sub-basin called Río Apatlaco.

 

Flora and Fauna

Huichichiqui is located within the Chichinautzin Biological Corridor Protected Natural Area. The Chichinautzin Corridor was decreed as a Flora and Fauna Protection Area in 1988 due to its remarkable diversity of habitats and species, being considered a priority zone for the conservation of flora and fauna in the Transversal Volcanic Axis of Mexico. The Chichinautzin Biological Corridor area in which Huichichiqui is located presents different types of vegetation, highlighting the pine forest, the pine-oak forest, the Abies forest and the mountain pasture. These types of vegetation form a diverse landscape dominated by trees of different species such as pines (Pinus hartwegii, P. ayacahuite, P. montezumae), oaks (Quercus barvinervis), ailes (Alnus jorullensis), cedars (Cupressus lindleyi) and oyameles. (Abies religious). As much the pines, as the fir trees and oaks have great forestry importance and are used for extraction of wood and resins. Huitzilac has an approximate area of ​​19,071.5 hectares; of which, in general, almost 3,035 hectares are used for agricultural use, around 1,500 hectares for pasture and more than 10,000 hectares for forest use. Approximately 785 plant species, both terrestrial and aquatic, have been recorded in this area; mainly among the gymnosperm and angiosperm groups. In fungi, 315 species belonging to 75 genera have been found.

In the Chichinautzin Biological Corridor, 785 species of plants, 315 species of fungi (of which more than 80 are edible), more than 1,300 species of insects and spiders, 5 species of fish, 10 species of amphibians, 43 species of reptiles have been recorded. (highlighting three species of rattlesnakes endemic to Mexico: Mexican pygmy rattlesnake (Crotalus ravus), crossed-banded rattlesnake (Crotalus transversus), and transvolcanic rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus), 237 birds (among which the presence of the Mountain sparrow (Xenospiza baileyi), an endemic species in danger of extinction), and 60 species of mammals (with important records of the Teporingo or volcano rabbit (Romerolagus diazi) and the puma or mountain lion (Puma concolor).

[1] Plan municipal de desarrollo de Huitzilac 2013, 2015 https://www.hacienda.morelos.gob.mx/images/docu_planeacion/planea_estrategica/planes_municipales/Huitzilac.pdf

[2] http://www2.morelos.gob.mx/?q=huitzilac 

Due to the geographical location of the Municipality of Huitzilac with respect to its proximity to the capital of the State of Morelos and the CDMX, the Municipality of Huitzilac has the privilege of being located in two protected natural areas, “Lagunas de Zempoala” National Park decreed on September 30, 1936 and modified on May 19, 1947, with an area of ​​4,790 hectares, 1,190 corresponding to the State of Mexico and 3,600 to the State of Morelos, of which 3,100 belong to the Huitzilac community considering the agrarian endowment documents of this community; on the other hand to the area of ​​Protection of Wild Flora and Fauna “Chichinautzin Biological Corridor”, which was decreed on November 30, 1988 with an area of ​​37,302.4 hectares. Within the same are the areas of Chalchihuites and Chichinautzin-Quiahuixtepec. On the other hand, it borders to the East with the National Park “El Tepozteco”; within the Municipality of Huitzilac there is 35% of said Corridor. Unfortunately, despite being a municipality so diverse and rich in Flora and Fauna, Huitzilac has lost in the last 20 years, around 2,700 hectares, with an average destruction of 135 hectares per year. The causes are diverse and include: immoderate logging, forest fires, overgrazing, change in land use, irregular urban settlements, among others.
The consequences are perceived serious in the reduction of the aquifers; since to date there is permanent damage to the biodiversity of the Chichinautzin Biological Corridor and in the Lagunas de Zempoala National Park.

Classification and Land Use

Of the total area, in general are used: 3,035 hectares for agricultural use, 3,051 hectares for livestock use and 7,002 hectares for forestry use.
Regarding land ownership, it can be divided into 440 hectares of communal property, 19,388 hectares of communal property and 9,693 hectares of private individuals.
http://obum.zmcuernavaca.morelos.gob.mx/metadata/Huitzilac/pdu/Mapa%20-%20Tres%20Marias%20-%20Carta%20urbana.pdf

 

Chronology of the Municipality

During the pre-Hispanic period Huitzilac belonged to the dominion of Cuernavaca, and when it fell into the hands of the Spanish, it became part of the Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca. The Municipality of Huitzilac has old buildings such as the Church of San Juan Bautista, in which a stone slab was found with the inscription of the year 1690, which refers to or could be interpreted as the date on which construction was completed. this church. You can also find several chapels dating from the same date or earlier. At the time of the conquest, several inns were built and also a hacienda known as “Hacienda del Fraile”.
Huitzilac became the second most important town in the state because it was on the way to Mexico City; However, when the railroad entered in 1897, the town fell apart, as it was no longer a mandatory step for the proceedings that were suspended at that time. In 1905 the Municipal Palace was built by order of Mr. Manuel Alarcón, governor of the State of Morelos and at the time of the revolution it served as a barracks for the Zapatista troops, which is why it was burned and semi-destroyed. Genovevo de la O, Zapatista general, engaged in combat against government forces, Huitzilac was set on fire in April 1912, and at the end of this month Genovevo de la O, and Amador Salazar mobilized about 4,000 men, reaching the outskirts of Cuernavaca and mounting artillery pieces to bombard the square. It was restored until March 1928.
Thanks to the popularity of the Southern Liberation Exercise, in this area, old feuds between Huitzilac and Santa María Ahuacatitlán were erased, as the Revolution unified them around a common interest. At kilometer 47 of the Mexico-Cuernavaca federal highway, near this municipality, Francisco Serrano, Daniel and Miguel A. Peralta, Carlos Ariza, Carlos Vidal, Rafael Martínez de Escobar, Cecilio González, Enrique Monteverde, Alonso Capetillo Robles, were murdered. Augusto Peña, Antonio Jáuregui, José Valle Arce, Octavio Almada and Ernesto Noriega Méndez. Iron crosses are seen when passing through the old race.
Huitzilac is a Municipality of firm customs and traditions. In each town there are regional and patron saint festivals, which have served as the tradition and culture of the inhabitants. In addition to various wind band groups from the place, with great talent. Huitzilac is divided into five communities: Huitzilac, Tres Marías, Fierro del Toro, Coajomulco and, Fraccionamientos y Parajes.

Target pululation

According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census, the municipality has a population of 17,340 inhabitants, a figure that represents 1.0% of the entity’s population. Of the total population, 8,813 are women and 8,527 are men, representing 51% and 49% of the total population, respectively.
According to the projections of the National Population Council (CONAPO), by the year 2030 Huitzilac will have 22,749 inhabitants, of which 48% are men and 52% women. From 2010 to 2030 the population will have increased by 29%, with the five-year average increase of 7%.
The Municipality has 1% of the population of indigenous language. In this area, it is regrettable to see how these peoples have been losing their roots; and far from benefiting them with programs and support that promote their historical-cultural wealth in the country, they are characterized by living in high levels of poverty and in a clearly disadvantaged situation. Considering the INEGI survey of the year 2015, the population is 19,231 inhabitants, maintaining the proportion between men and women. The highest concentration in the age group is from 0 to 14 years in the case of both groups.

[3] Secretaría de Hacienda. Dirección General de Información Estratégica. Con datos del Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2010, INEGI. P.9
[4] INEGI Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010.
[5] Plan Municipal de Desarrollo 2019-2021 del municipio de Huitzilac, Morelos de la Consejería Jurídica del Poder Ejecutivo del Estado de Morelos

 Imagen tomada del periódico http://www.transparenciamorelos.mx/sites/default/files/5392_2A_0.pdf

Living conditions

Despite the fact that Huitzilac is a relatively small Municipality compared to Cuernavaca or Cuautla; lives a situation of significant poverty. The low income of the heads of the family, the restricted access to goods and services, such as health and safety, to name a few; low levels of education and professionalization; They make the Municipality a marginalized place, a situation that is not clearly reflected in the main Huitzilac colonies, however it is present.
The uncontrolled growth of the population has triggered the lack of the most basic public services; Since there are neighborhoods that do not have drinking water, public lighting, their streets are unpaved in the best of cases; In short, the situation of social backwardness is very important.

Households

According to the National Population and Housing Census, in 2010 there were 4,162 households in the municipality of Huitzilac, of which 21% were headed by women and 79% by men. The age of the heads of families ranges, for the most part, between 30 and 54 years old, however, the percentage of households with heads of families between 20 and 29 years old represents 11.7%. The percentage of heads of household aged 19 years or less is 0.8%.
6% of the heads of families do not have any schooling, 68% have basic education, 15% secondary education and 11% higher education. In the municipality of Huitzilac, 59% of the heads of the family are entitled to some type of health service.

Housing

The housing situation in the towns of the Municipality of Huitzilac is deplorable. Traditionally, in the rural world, the users themselves are responsible for building their home, adapting it to their own needs based on the usual models of their environment, but it is unfortunate to see that, in almost 10% of the homes, the floor is of land, that is, they do not have a firm floor. About 5% do not have electricity; and almost 50% of the homes in the Municipality of Huitzilac lack drinking water supply.
In 2010, 4,303 inhabited private dwellings were registered, with an average number of inhabitants per dwelling of 4.1% persons. Most of the private houses are independent houses that represent 95%, 0% apartment in building, 0.16% house in neighborhood and 4.84% others.

[6] Plan municipal de desarrollo de Huitzilac 2013, 2015
[7] INEGI Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010. 

 Imagenes tomadas del periódico El Sol de Cuernavaca
https://www.elsoldecuernavaca.com.mx/local/comenzo-la-vacunacion-en-huitzilac-de-personas-de-30-anos-6943312.html
https://www.elsoldecuernavaca.com.mx/local/motociclistas-desobedecen-la-cuarentena-5429382.html

Marginalization Index

The municipality of Huitzilac has a marginalization index of -0.90261, which indicates that it is located in a Low degree of marginalization. At the state level, Huitzilac ranks 24th with reference to this index and 1953 nationally. 0% of the population of the municipality lives in some urban AGEB with a Medium degree of marginalization; 0% in places with a low degree of marginalization; 0% in urban AGEBs with Very low grade; 97.2% live in places with a High degree; and 2.6% of the population is located in areas with a very high degree of marginalization.

Human Development Index

In 2010 Mexico ranks as a country with high human development with a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.739, while the state of Morelos occupies the 13th place at the national level with an HDI of 0.7449, Huitzilac presented a very high Human Development Index in Morelos, with an HDI of 0.712.
In the indicators that make up the HDI, we find 8,138 in average years of schooling, 12,651 in expected years of schooling, 11,014,643 in annual per capita income (PPP dollars), 18,787 infant mortality rate, 0.676 education index, 0.673 income index and 0.792 health index.

Priority Attention Zones (SEDESOL)

The Priority Attention Zones (ZAPs) are the areas or regions of a rural or urban nature whose population presents indices of poverty and marginalization that indicate the existence of marked insufficiencies and lags in the exercise of the rights for social development established in the General Law. of Social Development. The ZAPs are defined annually by the Federal Executive, which is based on the evaluations of the results of the poverty measurement studies issued by the National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy (CONEVAL).

Economic aspects

The economically active population is 6,918, representing 53.9 of the population aged 12 and over, distributed in 2,256 female population representing 34.2% and 4,662 male population representing 74.7% of the economically active population.
On the other hand, the rest of the non-economically active population older than 12 years is made up according to the following table:

FACED PROBLEMS
HUITZILAC MUNICIPALITY
our reaches
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